Southern Italy is linked to the geodynamic context of the central Mediterranean area, characterized by active tectonics related to the diachronic convergence of the boundary between the Eurasian and African plates. The local tectonic setting of the Campanian and Sicilian regions produces very different magmas feeding Mt. Etna, Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei, which is reflected in different eruptive behaviours controlled by “open” or “closed” conduit conditions, and encompasses almost the entire spectrum of threatening, and possibly disruptive/destructive volcanic phenomena. Campi Flegrei and Somma Vesuvius, indeed, are currently in a state of quiescence characterized by hydrothermal activity, whereas Mt. Etna is a classical open-conduit volcanic system dominated by nearly persistent activity, generating both effusive and explosive eruption.