WP4 includes field activities, lab-scale experiments and processing and modelling issues in order to determine the internal structure of the supersite volcanoes Campi Flegrei and Somma-Vesuvius and reveal the way they behave. This will be achieved by assessing the large variety of non-linear thermo-mechanical and chemical processes associated with hydrothermal systems, and which precede and accompany unrest episodes, by fully exploiting the existing EO and in situ data bases, and by conducting specific experiments. Hydrothermal
systems shall be studied because they are strongly affected by sub-surface changes and may be excellent early warning systems.
WP4 activities represent an innovative, cross-cutting 4D (i.e. in space and time) geophysical and geochemical monitoring of the hydrothermal reservoir to (1) characterize background signals (“noise”), (2) detect geophysical and geochemical anomalies, (3) model reservoir changes in time, especially in virtue of renewed inputs of magmatic fluids and (4) furnish deterministic indicators for a robust assessment of the
short- to medium-term volcanic risk, including occurrence of phreatic eruptions. We will “record the heartbeat of volcanoes” by detecting geophysical and geochemical transients related to sub-surface processes, both with ground-based and satellite-based techniques. Both volcanic systems are characterized by hydrothermal activity that is however manifested differently at each system.
Campi Flegrei hosts a volumetrically huge and highly convective hydrothermal system, Somma-Vesuvius a smaller but more saline and hotter hydrothermal system, surrounding the crater axis. As hydrothermal systems can either enhance or screen the signals related
to magma and its volatiles and/or tectonic activity, the proposed Tasks will contribute to unravelling the nature of subtle physical and chemical signals (usually referred to as “noise”).
The ultimate goal of WP4 is a refined understanding of the interaction of magmatic and hydrothermal reservoirs, with a focus on the threatening phenomena as, for instance, (1) the surface effects of resurgence, (2) the switch from non-eruptive to eruptive unrest at Campi Flegrei or (3) the possible transition from obstructed to
open-conduit conditions at Somma-Vesuvius.
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Deliverables list :